Acute toxicities of commercial grade malathion (EC50) on Esomus danricus were determined by static-with-renewal tests and found to be 0.026, 0.022, 0.02 and 0.017 mgl-1 respectively for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. During acute toxicity, the normal colour was found to fade, along with copious mucous secretions, irregular, erratic and jerky movements. Three sub lethal doses (0.0017, 0.00017 and 0.000017 mgl-1) were taken for determining changes in growth, somatic indices and oxygen consumption at weekly interval for 28 days. A decline in body weight accompanied by a dose and exposure dependent increase in hepato-somatic index and decline in brain and kidney-somatic indices were observed. Decline in rate of oxygen consumption in 0.0017, 0.00017 and 0.000017 mgl-1 malathion exposed fish for 7 days were 33, 28 and 10%; for 14 days were 49, 43 and 17%; for 21 days were 55, 50 and 31% and for 28 days were 69, 57 and 41% respectively.
The RAPD technique has been successfully used in a variety of taxonomic and genetic diversity studies. The genetic diversity of 19 accessions of Salvadora oleoides collected from different regions of North-West India has been reported in this paper using 16 RAPD primers. 164 bands were scored corresponding to an average of 10.25 bands per primer with 146 bands showing polymorphism (90.09%). Jaccard similarity coefficient ranged from 0.21 to 0.94. A dendrogram constructed based on the UPGMA clustering method revealed two major clusters CL1 and CL2. The dendrogram has put all the genotypes in two clusters CL2 comprises of two accessions (Jalore & Jhunjhunu) while CL1 is further divided into two groups (1 & 2). The group 1 comprises 4 accessions (Rohtak, Hisar, Rewari, M. Garh) while group 2 is further divided in two sub groups (SG1 & SG2) out of which SG1 comprises 6 accessions while SG2 comprises 7 accessions. The study revealed rich genetic diversity among S. oleoides of North-West India.
Flavonoids – a group of polyphenolic substances are naturally present in vegetables, fruits, seeds and beverages such as tea and wine. Studies have shown that flavonoid intake is inversely correlated with mortality from coronary heart diseases and myocardial infaction. The effect of kolaviron (a flavonoid complex) extracted from garcinia kola seeds on the plasma and PMF phospholipids and proteins and on the organ weights (lungs, kidneys, heart, spleen and liver) of rats administered with cholesterol, five times a week, for eight consecutive weeks was investigated. The phospholipid levels was relatively stable in both the plasma and the PMF.There was no significant difference (p
A detailed study of chromosomes of two species of Indian inland fish revealed the chromosomal number and type. It describes the relation between the two species. Their peculiar morphological characters have been recorded. These karyological observations provide strong evidence to conclude that the two species are closely related and have phylogenetic links.
This study was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidants property in the methanolic root extract of Salacia chinensis in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. The methanolic root extract of S. chinensis was administered orally at a dose of 250-mg/kg weight/day (28 days) to STZ-induced diabetic rats. The extract treated diabetic rats were significantly decreased the levels of blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and increased the hemoglobin level. Diabetic rats treated with extract were showed decrease levels of lipid peroxidant and hydroperoxides as compared to diabetic rats. The level of reduced glutathione and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase were significantly increased in liver and kidney tissues of diabetic treated rats. These findings demonstrated that methanolic root extract of S. chinensis possess free radical scavenging activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats.