Acute toxicities of commercial grade malathion (EC50) on Esomus danricus were determined by static-with-renewal tests and found to be 0.026, 0.022, 0.02 and 0.017 mgl-1 respectively for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. During acute toxicity, the normal colour was found to fade, along with copious mucous secretions, irregular, erratic and jerky movements. Three sub lethal doses (0.0017, 0.00017 and 0.000017 mgl-1) were taken for determining changes in growth, somatic indices and oxygen consumption at weekly interval for 28 days. A decline in body weight accompanied by a dose and exposure dependent increase in hepato-somatic index and decline in brain and kidney-somatic indices were observed. Decline in rate of oxygen consumption in 0.0017, 0.00017 and 0.000017 mgl-1 malathion exposed fish for 7 days were 33, 28 and 10%; for 14 days were 49, 43 and 17%; for 21 days were 55, 50 and 31% and for 28 days were 69, 57 and 41% respectively.
The RAPD technique has been successfully used in a variety of taxonomic and genetic diversity studies. The genetic diversity of 19 accessions of Salvadora oleoides collected from different regions of North-West India has been reported in this paper using 16 RAPD primers. 164 bands were scored corresponding to an average of 10.25 bands per primer with 146 bands showing polymorphism (90.09%). Jaccard similarity coefficient ranged from 0.21 to 0.94. A dendrogram constructed based on the UPGMA clustering method revealed two major clusters CL1 and CL2. The dendrogram has put all the genotypes in two clusters CL2 comprises of two accessions (Jalore & Jhunjhunu) while CL1 is further divided into two groups (1 & 2). The group 1 comprises 4 accessions (Rohtak, Hisar, Rewari, M. Garh) while group 2 is further divided in two sub groups (SG1 & SG2) out of which SG1 comprises 6 accessions while SG2 comprises 7 accessions. The study revealed rich genetic diversity among S. oleoides of North-West India.
Flavonoids – a group of polyphenolic substances are naturally present in vegetables, fruits, seeds and beverages such as tea and wine. Studies have shown that flavonoid intake is inversely correlated with mortality from coronary heart diseases and myocardial infaction. The effect of kolaviron (a flavonoid complex) extracted from garcinia kola seeds on the plasma and PMF phospholipids and proteins and on the organ weights (lungs, kidneys, heart, spleen and liver) of rats administered with cholesterol, five times a week, for eight consecutive weeks was investigated. The phospholipid levels was relatively stable in both the plasma and the PMF.There was no significant difference (p
A detailed study of chromosomes of two species of Indian inland fish revealed the chromosomal number and type. It describes the relation between the two species. Their peculiar morphological characters have been recorded. These karyological observations provide strong evidence to conclude that the two species are closely related and have phylogenetic links.
This study was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidants property in the methanolic root extract of Salacia chinensis in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. The methanolic root extract of S. chinensis was administered orally at a dose of 250-mg/kg weight/day (28 days) to STZ-induced diabetic rats. The extract treated diabetic rats were significantly decreased the levels of blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and increased the hemoglobin level. Diabetic rats treated with extract were showed decrease levels of lipid peroxidant and hydroperoxides as compared to diabetic rats. The level of reduced glutathione and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase were significantly increased in liver and kidney tissues of diabetic treated rats. These findings demonstrated that methanolic root extract of S. chinensis possess free radical scavenging activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
Enzyme activity and biochemical constituents of healthy and stem rot infected tissues of susceptible variety of groundnut TMV2 were evaluated. Results revealed that higher activity of Oxidative enzymes (catalase, polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) were present in infected leaves than healthy ones. In case of Biochemical constituents, higher amount of total and Ortho-di hydric phenols and protein content was observed in infected plants as compared to healthy plants. Higher content of sugars and chlorophyll was observed in healthy plants as compared to infected plants.
Comparative modeling remains the most dependable and routinely used method for protein structure predictions. The pmpM gene belonging to MATE family of transporters of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen in humans, is a prime target sequence responsible for conferring multidrug resistance through H(+)/drug antiporter efflux pumps. Its structure elucidation is necessary to analyze its functional characteristic which makes it resistant to many known antibiotics. In this study we have reported a 3D-structure predicted using homology modelling software Modeller 9v8. The structural validation was done in RAMPAGE, energy minimization was performed in ANOLEA and the model was finally verified in PROCHECK. The secondary structure, clefts and domain analysis was done using different bioinformatics tools. Thus various computational analyses will help in uncovering its possible activity within the target sites in human and design novel drugs based on their active site analysis.
Thirty isolates of Sclerotium rolfsii, the causal agent of stem rot of groundnut obtained from different Rayalaseema areas of Andhra Pradesh, India were categorized into four groups, on the basis of oxalic acid production in the culture filtrate and severity of patrhogenicity on groundnut seedlings. The group four was more dominant than other groups and highly virulent to groundnut seedlings. There was a positive correlation between oxalic acid production and the virulence of the isolate.
Toxicity of Ocimum suave (Wild basil) crude oil extract on C. maculatus and test on seeds’ viability, was determined in the laboratory using contact toxicity assay method of different concentration 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08mg to 20ml of water and 0.00g/20ml of water (control). 20g of cowpea seeds were weighed into separate Petri dishes and 10 adult weevils were inoculated and replicated four times. Each treatment was observed for 96h and recorded after every 12h. The result indicated that the crude oil extract had significant difference (p0.05) in the germination of treated cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata L) compared to the untreated control, which shows that the seeds still remained viable. This result showed that O. suave crude oil is effective in the protection of cowpea against cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus.
In semi arid zone of southern Tamilnadu, India farmers are recognized that planting with multipurpose nitrogen fixing trees including medicinal plants in an agroforestry system for sustainable income generation.To identify the existing agroforestry system. A systematic survey was carried out to find out the nitrogen fixing trees planted in the agroforestry system revealed that a total of economically important 9 tree species belonging to 8 genus of 3 families were commonly cultivated without specific model. These multipurpose usable trees improve soil physical properties, maintain soil organic matter, fix the atmospheric nitrogen and promote nutrient cycling through high amount of litter production, which increase the main crop yield.