Vascular Cambium, a meristem responsible for the formation of wood by way of growth and divisions of its components i.e. ray and fusiform initials were analyzed during different months over two consecutive years in order to assess their impact on growth in Populus nigra from temperate climate of Kashmir Himalaya. The maximum and minimum dimensions of fusiform initials and ray initials were in winter and summer seasons respectively while the horizontal and vertical diameters of ray initials were maximum and minimum in summer and winter seasons respectively.
The Jammu and Kashmir state is stretched between 32°17′-37°03’N latitude 72°03,-80°20°E longitude, with an average annual rainfall of 60-80cm. The state exhibits varied climatic and topographic conditions and provide a congenial environment for the luxurious growth of diverse groups of plants and fungi. However, information regarding the macro-fungal inventorization from this state is limited. In this backdrop, a systematic study of mushroom diversity from Western Kashmir Himalaya was undertaken. During the course of field survey from March 2009 to December 2010, two new species Mutinus caninus (Huds.) Fr. and Gyromitra sphaerospora (Peck) Sacc. were reported from the surveyed area. These species were identified on the basis of macro and microscopic characteristics and are first records from Kashmir Himalaya.
Earlier mushrooms were consumed mainly for their palatability and unique flavours, but their use as to meet specific nutrient requirements and medicinal purposes is recent one. Pharmaceutical substances with potent and unique health enhancing properties have been isolated from a number of medicinal mushrooms. The modern research support that mushrooms consists of a valuable source of biologically active compounds having significant antioxidant activity and protecting cellular DNA from oxidative damage. The present communication involves the evaluation of antioxidant potential of some mushrooms viz. Coprinus plicatilis, Lentinus tigrinus, Ganoderma applaunatum, Helvella crispa and Flammulina velutipes growing wild in Kashmir. Among them Lentinus tigrinus proved to be having highest antioxidant potential where as Helevella crispa with least antioxidant potential, but all the selected species of mushroom come out with more or less positive results.
Study of phytolith (opaline silica) depositions in plant parts of pteridophytes is an emerging field in science. Some recent studies have shown promising results for their use in nanotechnology, archaeology and plant taxonomy. Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata) and some aquatic ferns like Marsilea minuta, Salvinia molesta, Azolla pinnata and Ceratopteris thictroides have been studied here to record their characteristic pattern of phytolith if any. In the present study, distinguishable plates like phytoliths were found in the plant body of Azolla pinnata and leaves of Marsilea minuta indicating their usefulness for distinguishing genera. No morphologically distinguishable phytoliths were found in Salvinia molesta and Ceratopteris thalictroides. Plate like and various other shaped phytoliths were found in Pteris vittata which support early observations by previous workers.
Germination of Mustard and Castor seeds was made by irrigated with distillery spentwash of different concentration. The spentwash i.e. primary treated spentwash [PTSW] 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 spentwash were analyzed for their plant nutrients such nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and physical & chemical characteristics. Experimental soil was tested for its chemical physical parameters. Mustard and Castor seeds were sowed in the prepared land and irrigated with raw water (RW), 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 (SW: RW) spentwash. The nature of germination of seeds was studied. It was found that, the germination was good (100%) in 1:3 SW irrigation, while very poor in 1:1 SW (25%), moderate in 1:2 SW (80%) and 95% in RW irrigations.
Two surface glycoproteins of H1N1 virus namely hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) are responsible for binding and entry of the virus into the target cell. Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAI) interfere with the release of progeny influenza virus from infected host cells and thereby halt the spread of infection. Effective binding of NAI to the neuraminidase receptors prevents the digestion of sialic acid as well as spreading of progeny virus. Interaction studies between neuraminidase and existing drugs viz., oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir was carried out using molecular docking procedure and compared with the modified probable drug analogues. The results were analyzed based on the energy value between existing and modified probable drug analogues and reveals that analogues were having better affinity than its predecessor. Thus, the concept of protein-ligand interaction can be useful in designing new drugs for H1N1.