Earlier mushrooms were consumed mainly for their palatability and unique flavours, but their use as to meet specific nutrient requirements and medicinal purposes is recent one. Pharmaceutical substances with potent and unique health enhancing properties have been isolated from a number of medicinal mushrooms. The modern research support that mushrooms consists of a valuable source of biologically active compounds having significant antioxidant activity and protecting cellular DNA from oxidative damage. The present communication involves the evaluation of antioxidant potential of some mushrooms viz. Coprinus plicatilis, Lentinus tigrinus, Ganoderma applaunatum, Helvella crispa and Flammulina velutipes growing wild in Kashmir. Among them Lentinus tigrinus proved to be having highest antioxidant potential where as Helevella crispa with least antioxidant potential, but all the selected species of mushroom come out with more or less positive results.
Study of phytolith (opaline silica) depositions in plant parts of pteridophytes is an emerging field in science. Some recent studies have shown promising results for their use in nanotechnology, archaeology and plant taxonomy. Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata) and some aquatic ferns like Marsilea minuta, Salvinia molesta, Azolla pinnata and Ceratopteris thictroides have been studied here to record their characteristic pattern of phytolith if any. In the present study, distinguishable plates like phytoliths were found in the plant body of Azolla pinnata and leaves of Marsilea minuta indicating their usefulness for distinguishing genera. No morphologically distinguishable phytoliths were found in Salvinia molesta and Ceratopteris thalictroides. Plate like and various other shaped phytoliths were found in Pteris vittata which support early observations by previous workers.
Germination of Mustard and Castor seeds was made by irrigated with distillery spentwash of different concentration. The spentwash i.e. primary treated spentwash [PTSW] 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 spentwash were analyzed for their plant nutrients such nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and physical & chemical characteristics. Experimental soil was tested for its chemical physical parameters. Mustard and Castor seeds were sowed in the prepared land and irrigated with raw water (RW), 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 (SW: RW) spentwash. The nature of germination of seeds was studied. It was found that, the germination was good (100%) in 1:3 SW irrigation, while very poor in 1:1 SW (25%), moderate in 1:2 SW (80%) and 95% in RW irrigations.
Two surface glycoproteins of H1N1 virus namely hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) are responsible for binding and entry of the virus into the target cell. Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAI) interfere with the release of progeny influenza virus from infected host cells and thereby halt the spread of infection. Effective binding of NAI to the neuraminidase receptors prevents the digestion of sialic acid as well as spreading of progeny virus. Interaction studies between neuraminidase and existing drugs viz., oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir was carried out using molecular docking procedure and compared with the modified probable drug analogues. The results were analyzed based on the energy value between existing and modified probable drug analogues and reveals that analogues were having better affinity than its predecessor. Thus, the concept of protein-ligand interaction can be useful in designing new drugs for H1N1.
Pollution of the aquatic ecosystems by heavy metals is a worldwide problem. In the present study, Clarias batrachus was exposed to Mercury and Chromium for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of mercury to C. batrachus for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure were 1.4 ppm, 1.2 ppm, 1.0 ppm and 0.8 ppm respectively. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of chromium to C. batrachus for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure were 120 ppm, 115 ppm, 110 ppm and 102 ppm respectively. The acute toxicity levels were derived from LC50 concentrations of the heavy metals. Both the heavy metals produced lethality at smaller doses. Physiological responses like rapid opercular movement and frequent gulping of air was observed during the initial stages of exposure after which it became occasional. All these observations can be considered to monitor the quality of aquatic eco system and severity of pollution.
In the anomuran crab Albunea symmista, the extent of epidermal retraction and the developmental changes of setae on the pleopods were used to define the molt cycle stages. The female crab Albunea symmista exhibits reproductive and non-reproductive molt. Hence, it shows antagonistic relationship with molting and reproduction. Thus in the case of anomuran crab Albunea symmista spawning is always followed by two successive molt. The ovary of reproductive molt remains in the spent stage. It does not undergo any further development, awaiting for the embryo development on the pleopod and hatching out from the brood at the time of the early remount stages. The ovary of non reproductive molt does not completes its maturation in the next post molt stage. As the ovarian development proceeds, the animal gets molted and it does not undergo continuous spawning in this stage. The matured ovary spawns in the late postmolt or early intermolt during reproductive molt cycle and the cycle continues.
This study investigated toxic impacts of lead over the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), super oxide dismutase (SOD), proline activity and chlorophyll content in Capsicum annum. Despite a reduction in the growth of the plant, its MDA, SOD and proline contents were increased, whereas its chlorophyll content was decreased under the heavy metal stress, corresponding to the concentration of the metal ion. Increased amount of MDA was indicative for the formation of free radicals in plants under heavy metal stress, while increased levels of SOD and proline were pointed to the occurrence of a scavenging mechanism. The decrease in chlorophyll content is an indication of reduction in the growth of the plants leading to a decrease in the yield.
Background: Parrotiopsis Jacquemontiana -(Decne.) Rehder is regarded as an important natural resource almost throughout the world but relatively little is known about the within-tree variability of the anatomical characteristics of its wood.
Methods: For this purpose three sites were selected and from each site three trees were felled and five discs were extracted from base upto merchantable top of the each tree, equally spaced along vertical direction. The wood anatomical features viz. fiber length, fiber diameter, fiber wall thickness, varied significantly from different positions of trees.
Conclusion: Also the derived wood properties like Runkel ratio, Slenderness ratio, Luce’s shape factor were evaluated from wood anatomical features as these parameters are directly related to industrial utility of wood especially, paper quality.
Aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchonii root was analyzed for its phytochemical and mineral compositions. The phytochemical screening and subsequent quantification revealed the presence of saponins (7.5%), phenolics (3.16%), alkaloids (2.92%), steroids (0.89%), and tannins (0.15%), flvonoids (0.07%), phlobatannins (0.03%), triterpenes (0.09%) and anthraquinones (0.19%). Cardiac glycosides, cardenolides and dienolides were however not detected. Analysis of the mineral constituents showed that the plant contains among othersK (8.25 × 104 mg/kg), Na (3.08 × 104 mg/kg), Ca (26.80 mg/kg), Mg (32.80 mg/kg), Mn (11.35 mg/kg), Fe (91.40 mg/kg), Se (10.35 mg/kg), Cu (5.85 mg/kg) and trace amount of Pb (1.00 mg/kg) and Cd (0.20mg/kg). The constituent phytochemicals and minerals may account for varied ethnobtanical uses of the plant in folk medicine of Nigeria. It is also considered that Cochlospermum planchonii could be a very rich source of drug formulation, if properly harnessed and processed to reduce or eliminate the potential toxic components.
Chemical composition of two freshwater fish (Alestes nurse and Oreochromis gallilaeus) and two brackish fish (Scomberomorus tritor and Pseudotolithus elongates) species were carried out using AOAC methods. Metabolizable Energy (ME) and carbohydrate levels were determined using appropriate equations. Percentage moisture content was 72.26±0.20% in A. nurse and 70.63±0.57% in Oreochromis gallilaeus. In Scomberomorus tritor and Pseudotolithus elongatus moisture content were 69.52±0.10% and 72.51±0.20% respectively. Ether extract in A. nurse and Oreochromis gallilaeus were 3.41±0.20% and 3.22±1.0% respectively. In S. tritor and P. elongatus this parameter varied from 1.31±1.0 to 2.95±0.3%. Carbohydrate content in S. tritor was 3.51±0.10% and was significantly higher (P≤0.05) than values of 2.49±0.10 for P. elongatus and 2.47±0.40% for O. gallilaeus. Ash content in A. nurse and Oreochromis gallilaeus were 2.20±0.2% and 2.47±0.40% respectively while in S. tritor and P. elongatus it was 2.38±0.3% and 2.5±0.2% respectively. Crude protein levels in freshwater fish species ranged from 20.26±2.00 in A. nurse to 21.52+0.10% in O. gallilaeus while in brackish water species this parameter ranged from 21.52±0.10% in Scomberomorus tritor to 22.86±1.00% in P. elongatus. Crude fiber content in A. nurse and O. gallilaeus were 0.93±0.10% and 0.86±0.10% respectively while in S. tritor and P. elongatus it was 0.76±0.01 % and 0.80±0.01% respectively. Percentage nitrogen free extract (NFE) was 0.67±0.20 in A. nurse and 2.47±0.40 in O. gallilaeus. The percentage value for this parameter was 2.75±0.01 in S. tritor and 1.14±0.0 in P. elongatus.