Vascular Cambium, a meristem responsible for the formation of wood by way of growth and divisions of its components i.e. ray and fusiform initials were analyzed during different months over two consecutive years in order to assess their impact on growth in Populus nigra from temperate climate of Kashmir Himalaya. The maximum and minimum dimensions of fusiform initials and ray initials were in winter and summer seasons respectively while the horizontal and vertical diameters of ray initials were maximum and minimum in summer and winter seasons respectively.
The Jammu and Kashmir state is stretched between 32°17′-37°03’N latitude 72°03,-80°20°E longitude, with an average annual rainfall of 60-80cm. The state exhibits varied climatic and topographic conditions and provide a congenial environment for the luxurious growth of diverse groups of plants and fungi. However, information regarding the macro-fungal inventorization from this state is limited. In this backdrop, a systematic study of mushroom diversity from Western Kashmir Himalaya was undertaken. During the course of field survey from March 2009 to December 2010, two new species Mutinus caninus (Huds.) Fr. and Gyromitra sphaerospora (Peck) Sacc. were reported from the surveyed area. These species were identified on the basis of macro and microscopic characteristics and are first records from Kashmir Himalaya.
Background: Parrotiopsis Jacquemontiana -(Decne.) Rehder is regarded as an important natural resource almost throughout the world but relatively little is known about the within-tree variability of the anatomical characteristics of its wood.
Methods: For this purpose three sites were selected and from each site three trees were felled and five discs were extracted from base upto merchantable top of the each tree, equally spaced along vertical direction. The wood anatomical features viz. fiber length, fiber diameter, fiber wall thickness, varied significantly from different positions of trees.
Conclusion: Also the derived wood properties like Runkel ratio, Slenderness ratio, Luce’s shape factor were evaluated from wood anatomical features as these parameters are directly related to industrial utility of wood especially, paper quality.
Reaction wood possesses altered properties than normal wood and develops in response to gravistimulus in trees. In gymnosperms it is referred as compression wood and develops on the lower side of leaning stems or branches, while in angiosperms it is called tension wood and is formed on the upper side of the leaning stem or branches. Reaction wood performs the function of regulating a tree’s form but at the same time is a serious defect in wood utility. This paper describes the factors which lead to the formation of reaction wood and its different properties.