Pollution of the aquatic ecosystems by heavy metals is a worldwide problem. In the present study, Clarias batrachus was exposed to Mercury and Chromium for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of mercury to C. batrachus for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure were 1.4 ppm, 1.2 ppm, 1.0 ppm and 0.8 ppm respectively. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of chromium to C. batrachus for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure were 120 ppm, 115 ppm, 110 ppm and 102 ppm respectively. The acute toxicity levels were derived from LC50 concentrations of the heavy metals. Both the heavy metals produced lethality at smaller doses. Physiological responses like rapid opercular movement and frequent gulping of air was observed during the initial stages of exposure after which it became occasional. All these observations can be considered to monitor the quality of aquatic eco system and severity of pollution.
In the anomuran crab Albunea symmista, the extent of epidermal retraction and the developmental changes of setae on the pleopods were used to define the molt cycle stages. The female crab Albunea symmista exhibits reproductive and non-reproductive molt. Hence, it shows antagonistic relationship with molting and reproduction. Thus in the case of anomuran crab Albunea symmista spawning is always followed by two successive molt. The ovary of reproductive molt remains in the spent stage. It does not undergo any further development, awaiting for the embryo development on the pleopod and hatching out from the brood at the time of the early remount stages. The ovary of non reproductive molt does not completes its maturation in the next post molt stage. As the ovarian development proceeds, the animal gets molted and it does not undergo continuous spawning in this stage. The matured ovary spawns in the late postmolt or early intermolt during reproductive molt cycle and the cycle continues.
This study investigated toxic impacts of lead over the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), super oxide dismutase (SOD), proline activity and chlorophyll content in Capsicum annum. Despite a reduction in the growth of the plant, its MDA, SOD and proline contents were increased, whereas its chlorophyll content was decreased under the heavy metal stress, corresponding to the concentration of the metal ion. Increased amount of MDA was indicative for the formation of free radicals in plants under heavy metal stress, while increased levels of SOD and proline were pointed to the occurrence of a scavenging mechanism. The decrease in chlorophyll content is an indication of reduction in the growth of the plants leading to a decrease in the yield.
Background: Parrotiopsis Jacquemontiana -(Decne.) Rehder is regarded as an important natural resource almost throughout the world but relatively little is known about the within-tree variability of the anatomical characteristics of its wood.
Methods: For this purpose three sites were selected and from each site three trees were felled and five discs were extracted from base upto merchantable top of the each tree, equally spaced along vertical direction. The wood anatomical features viz. fiber length, fiber diameter, fiber wall thickness, varied significantly from different positions of trees.
Conclusion: Also the derived wood properties like Runkel ratio, Slenderness ratio, Luce’s shape factor were evaluated from wood anatomical features as these parameters are directly related to industrial utility of wood especially, paper quality.
Aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchonii root was analyzed for its phytochemical and mineral compositions. The phytochemical screening and subsequent quantification revealed the presence of saponins (7.5%), phenolics (3.16%), alkaloids (2.92%), steroids (0.89%), and tannins (0.15%), flvonoids (0.07%), phlobatannins (0.03%), triterpenes (0.09%) and anthraquinones (0.19%). Cardiac glycosides, cardenolides and dienolides were however not detected. Analysis of the mineral constituents showed that the plant contains among othersK (8.25 × 104 mg/kg), Na (3.08 × 104 mg/kg), Ca (26.80 mg/kg), Mg (32.80 mg/kg), Mn (11.35 mg/kg), Fe (91.40 mg/kg), Se (10.35 mg/kg), Cu (5.85 mg/kg) and trace amount of Pb (1.00 mg/kg) and Cd (0.20mg/kg). The constituent phytochemicals and minerals may account for varied ethnobtanical uses of the plant in folk medicine of Nigeria. It is also considered that Cochlospermum planchonii could be a very rich source of drug formulation, if properly harnessed and processed to reduce or eliminate the potential toxic components.
Chemical composition of two freshwater fish (Alestes nurse and Oreochromis gallilaeus) and two brackish fish (Scomberomorus tritor and Pseudotolithus elongates) species were carried out using AOAC methods. Metabolizable Energy (ME) and carbohydrate levels were determined using appropriate equations. Percentage moisture content was 72.26±0.20% in A. nurse and 70.63±0.57% in Oreochromis gallilaeus. In Scomberomorus tritor and Pseudotolithus elongatus moisture content were 69.52±0.10% and 72.51±0.20% respectively. Ether extract in A. nurse and Oreochromis gallilaeus were 3.41±0.20% and 3.22±1.0% respectively. In S. tritor and P. elongatus this parameter varied from 1.31±1.0 to 2.95±0.3%. Carbohydrate content in S. tritor was 3.51±0.10% and was significantly higher (P≤0.05) than values of 2.49±0.10 for P. elongatus and 2.47±0.40% for O. gallilaeus. Ash content in A. nurse and Oreochromis gallilaeus were 2.20±0.2% and 2.47±0.40% respectively while in S. tritor and P. elongatus it was 2.38±0.3% and 2.5±0.2% respectively. Crude protein levels in freshwater fish species ranged from 20.26±2.00 in A. nurse to 21.52+0.10% in O. gallilaeus while in brackish water species this parameter ranged from 21.52±0.10% in Scomberomorus tritor to 22.86±1.00% in P. elongatus. Crude fiber content in A. nurse and O. gallilaeus were 0.93±0.10% and 0.86±0.10% respectively while in S. tritor and P. elongatus it was 0.76±0.01 % and 0.80±0.01% respectively. Percentage nitrogen free extract (NFE) was 0.67±0.20 in A. nurse and 2.47±0.40 in O. gallilaeus. The percentage value for this parameter was 2.75±0.01 in S. tritor and 1.14±0.0 in P. elongatus.
The aim of this study was to determine the preliminary phytochemistry and antibacterial potentiality of hydro-ethanolic leaf extracts of Psidium guajava on Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram negative bacteria (Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli. Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp and Citrobacter freundii) isolated from mid-stream urine of males and females between August and October, 2009 using standard microbiological and agar disc diffusion techniques. The results of the preliminary phytochemical constituents revealed that hydro-ethanolic leaf extracts of Psidium guajava contained secondary and primary metabolites such as saponins (++), alkaloids (++), tannins (++), cardiac-glycosides (±), terpenes (+), flavonoids (+) and sterols (+). The results also showed that both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were susceptible to hydro-ethanolic extracts of Psidium guajava at different graded concentrations (5 mg ml-1, 10 mg ml-1, 20 mg ml-1, 40 mg ml-1 and 80 mg ml-1) with the Mean ± SD zones of inhibition among the Gram positive bacteria ranging from 8.0 ± 1.5mm in Streptococcus pyogenes to 25.0 ± 3.0mm in Staphylococcus aureus while among the Gram negative bacteria, it ranged from 8.3 ± 0.5mm in E coli to 27.0± 3.0mm in Serratia marcescens. However, growth of Enterococcus faecalis was not inhibited by the tested leaf extracts at (5 mg mL-1). This depicts that the inhibitory activity was both organism and concentration dependent. The presence of the phytochemical constituents and inhibitory activities of hydro-ethanolic leaf extracts of Psidium guajava signify the potential of Psidium guajava as a source of therapeutic agents combating infections caused by common urinary tract pathogens.
Background: A field experiment was conducted at North Kordofan of Sudan, on naturally infested field during 2006/07 and 2007/08 rainy seasons, to determine optimal weeding frequency for weeding management in four plant populations (17, 1 1, 8 and 7 plants m-2) of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L ). Weeding treatments consisted of three levels (no weeding, weeding once (at 2 weeks) and weeding twice (at 2 and 4 weeks after sowing). The weeds were controlled using a hand hoe. Weeds significantly reduced the yield attributes. Weeding twice at 2 and 4 weeks after sowing was optimal for pods number, 100- seed weight and seed yield (g/plant). Final yield (t/ha) increased with the treatments 17 plants m-2 and weeding twice.
A field experiment was conducted in farmer’s fields at Nagasandra village, Doddaballapura Tq,, Bangalore district for one year to study the anthropogenic liquid waste as a source of plant nutrients for banana cultivation (Musa paradisica) crop to anthropogenic liquid waste when applied to meet the nitrogen requirement of these crops. The treatments were absolute control, recommended dose of fertilizers, recommended dose of nitrogen through anthropogenic liquid waste with and without gypsum and fertilizer applied to soil and different combinations of anthropogenic liquid waste and fertilizers. The results of the field experiment revealed that the highest bunch yield (30.0 t ha-1) of banana was recorded in the treatment which received RDN through human urine (After 30 days of planting) + Gypsum applied to soil when compared to control, and other treatment combinations. The available nutrients content of harvest soil viz., N, P and K had significant influence on it. Significant increase in the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content of plant samples was observed in the crop when compared to other treatments and control. The highest total soluble solids (25.85 per cent), reducing sugars (20.93 per cent) and total sugars (23.87 per cent) were recorded in banana grown using anthropogenic liquid waste. Also the highest C: B ratio of both crops was obtained in the treatment which received the recommended dose of nitrogen through anthropogenic liquid waste.
Antimicrobial activities of crude extracts and extracted phenols from sporophytic parts of epiphytic fern Arthromeris himalayensis (Hook.) Ching belonging to the family Polypodiaceae were studied in summer and winter seasons against Bacillus subtilis AR-2 (Gr +ve) and Escherichia coli XL1-Blue (Gr -ve). Both the crude extracts and extracted phenols from sporophytic plant parts showed antimicrobial activities. In both the seasons of summer and winter, maximum phenol contents were more or less same. Each and every sporophytic plant parts showed antimicrobial activities by crude extract as well as by extracted phenols. Detailed observations revealed that crude extract shows better antimicrobial activity than extracted phenol.
Background: Cheilanthes is a large and diverse genus with 150 species having worldwide distribution. In India, Cheilanthes is represented by about 27 species. The delineation of one species of Cheilanthes from the other is sometimes difficult on the basis of visible morphologiocal characters alone.
Observation: In the present paper, mature stomatal morphotypes, venation pattern, epidermal characteristics including hairs and scales, farinose characters, sporangial and spore characters of five species of Cheilanthes viz., C. albomarginata Clarke, C.argentea (Gmel) Kunze, C. chrysophylla Hook., C. rufa D. Don and C. pseudofarinosa (Ching & S.K.Wu) Iwats have been studied under light and Scanning Electron Microscope to bring out their more finer differences which will help delineation of the members easily.
Poly β-hydroxybutyric acid [P(3HB)] is an intracellular thermoplastic biopolymer possessing properties such as biocompatibility and biodegradability that is belonging to the polyesters class. The research is similitude this material based on biotechnological model and in this way, suitable diazotroph in N-free medium with hydrophilic adjuvants viz, perlite was doing nitrogen fixation in incubator with concentration of 6% sucrose, dioxide carbon relative concentration and temperature 37ºC, and final production was produced during 14 days. This solution had high concentration of P(3HB) that it had significant difference as blank. Therefore, invention had capability of nitrogen fixation and could apply for P(3HB) production in polymers industries.
Reaction wood possesses altered properties than normal wood and develops in response to gravistimulus in trees. In gymnosperms it is referred as compression wood and develops on the lower side of leaning stems or branches, while in angiosperms it is called tension wood and is formed on the upper side of the leaning stem or branches. Reaction wood performs the function of regulating a tree’s form but at the same time is a serious defect in wood utility. This paper describes the factors which lead to the formation of reaction wood and its different properties.
Background: Cancer is a term used for diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control and are able to invade other tissues. Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph systems. Cancer is one of the most common causes of premature death in the world. The most recent estimate of cancer indicates that 8.1 million new cases are diagnosed world wide in each year. Chemotherapy has become an integral component of cancer treatment for most cancers.
Challenges: Taxol is a best chemotherapy drug specifically effective against prostate, ovarian, breast and lung cancer. Its primary mechanism of action is related to the ability to stabilize the microtubules and to disrupt their dynamic equilibrium.
Conclusion: This review clearly discuss the anticancer activity, mode of action of taxol against different cancer community and production of taxol from different sources.