We present the concentrations of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Fe, Cr and Cd) estimated in fish species (Nemipterus japonicas and Sardinella longiceps) collected from Ennore, Chennai coast during post monsoon and pre monsoon 2006. Fe and Zn showed the high accumulation in gills of the two fish species during pre monsoon seasons. The concentrations of the five metals were increased during pre monsoon season and decreased during post monsoon season. Heavy metal levels in the analyzed fish species were below the permissible limits and are acceptable for human consumption.
Background: In the present study, a total of 104 Actinomycetes strains were isolated from 20 soil samples collected from Senbagadaruvi (Western Ghats) region. Of the isolated strains, 14 number of isolates were chosen randomly for screening of antibiotic production. Primary screening was carried out by cross plate method and further assay was made by well plate method. Fermented broths as well as cell free extracts were prepared by growing the selected strains in a suitable fermentation medium for detection of antimicrobial activity.
Results: Among the isolates, three strains showed remarkable antimicrobial activities. They exhibit antimicrobial activities against different types of bacteria and yeasts. Secondary screening for β-lactam antibiotic, Glycopeptide / cell wall binding antibiotics and MLS antibiotic producer was also carried out.
Conclusion: In the present study Bacillus thuringiensis and Staphylococcus aureus were sensitive to Actinomycetes. Mostly, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E.coli were resistant to Actinomycetes.
Background: This study evaluated the hematological changes in Channa striatus (120 ± 3.5 g) intramuscularly administered with Aeromonas hydrophila. The experiment consisted of two treatments in triplicates: non-injected control fish; fish injected with 2.4 x 108 CFU/mL of A. hydrophila. Forty-eight hours after injection, the fish were anesthetized and the blood collected. The hematological parameters included red blood corpuscles (RBCs) count, white blood cells (WBCs) count, packed cell volume (PCV), differential count of WBCs, the derived blood indices of mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular
haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were studied in the experimental and control fish.
Results: Fish injected with 2.4 x 108 CFU/mL of A. hydrophila showed a higher MCV value than control fish. White blood cells and lymphocytes numbers increased significantly in fish injected with A. hydrophila when compared to non-injected control. PCV also increased in fish injected with 2.4 x 108 CFU/mL of A. hydrphila.
Hematological data were analyzed with SPSS 7.5 for Windows by using one way analysis of variance.
Background: Fish production has been one of the fastest growing segments of the global food production sector in recent decades. The demand for fish pellet is on daily increase in Nigeria due to a desire for high yield in fish production. The need to meet increasing demand leads to multiple fish pellet production factories and errors in handling during processing may cause spoilage. A total of six samples were collected from retail outlets in Oyo market and the microbiological quality examined in terms of total bacterial count, coliform count, and fungal count, types of bacterial and fungal species present. Their physicochemical parameters: pH, titratable acidity (TTA) and percentage moisture content were also assessed.
Results: The pellets were found to have pH ranging from 5.00 and 5.80, the titratable acidity ranges between 0.80 and 4.10 while the percentage moisture content ranges between 5.0% and 10.0%. The bacterial counts ranged from 0.0 to 17.0 x 104 cfu/g, coliform count ranged from 0.0 to 74 x 104 cfu/g while the fungal count ranged from 0.0 to 2.0 x 104 cfu/g. Six bacterial species namely Streptococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Klebsiella sp., Salmonella sp. and Streptococcus epidemidis, and three fungal species: Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer and Mucor sps. were isolated. Their distribution pattern showed that Stapylococcus aureus was present in almost all the samples.
Conclusion: The presence of some potential food borne pathogen in the samples indicate that fish pellet could pose a food safety risk to fishes. To avoid cross contamination, manufacturing industries should reduce direct hand manipulation and ensure the use of automated equipments in their production.
With the aim of identifying the rotifer fauna of Lake Boukourdane (Algeria), samples were collected between April 2005 and Marsh 2007 using a plankton net with a mesh size of 75 µm, and were preserved in 5% formaldehyde.
As a result, 78 taxa in 16 families were identified, and 36 are new recorded species for Algeria water fauna.
Background: The selection of plant species with phytoremediation potential is as essential as microorganisms are for the success of decontamination programs of areas affected by organic exploration and oil production spills. Based on a greenhouse study aimed at assessing the initial growth of three plant species [Mamona (Ricinus communis), Acácia (Accia holocerisea) and Mimosa (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia)] grown in the presence and absence of crude oil (petroleum), a study was carried out in order to isolate and select filamentous fungi which have potential to grow and degrade this contaminant.
Results: After a growth period of 47 days of the plants, soil samples were collected for treatment, and only comparisons between the contamination effects on the number of colony-forming units (CFU) of species and genera of fungi isolates were evaluated by the Student’s t test. The presence of oil in the soil significantly decreased the number of CFU (44.39 x 103 vs. 8.83 x 102) and, consequently, the diversity of soil fungi. Two hundred and thirteen filamentous fungi were isolated from contaminated and uncontaminated soil samples. In uncontaminated soil, 12 genera and 29 species were identified, whereas in contaminated soil eight genera and 12 species were identified. Penicillium was the most frequent genus found in uncontaminated soil; however, it was not isolated from contaminated soil.
Conclusion: The existence of species that grow with or without the presence of oil allow inferences on their use as an contamination indicator or on how these hydrocarbons are degraded, having potential for the treatment of environments.
Background: The effect of some selected laboratory prepared fruit wines (Pineapple wine, Cashew wine and Banana wine) at different alcoholic content on haematological parameters of albino rat (Wistar strain) were investigated. The Pack cell volume (PCV), Haemoglobin (Hb), Red blood cell (RBC), Mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), Mean cell volume (MCV), Mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), Total white blood cell (TWBC), Percentage Lymphocyte (%LYM), percentage Eosinophil (%EOS) and percentage Neutrophil (% NEU) were determined to estimate the toxicological effect of the administered wine.
Results: The results indicated that there was a significant reduction in PCV and Hb count of rats fed with 7.5% of cashew wine and 10% of cashew wine and pineapple wine respectively when compared with the red wine (p
The M haplogroup was carried to Asia by anatomically modern humans (amh) 60kya. The spatial distribution of haplogroup L3(M) and LOd across Sub-Saharan Africa suggest significant demic expansion of carriers of the haplogroup M. The basal L3(M) motif is characterized by the Ddel site np 10394 and Alul site np 10397 in haplotype AF-24 which is at the base of the M hapogroups. Haplotype AF-24 belongs to haplogroup LOd which is not found in Asia, and suggest a human migration from East Africa to the Senegambia by amh using the Sangoan industry 80-50kya.
Objectives: Ankylosing spondylitis should be a diagnostic consideration in young patients with back pain, particularly young men. Simple clinical and diagnostic methods can distinguish between back pain due to ankylosing spondylitis and back pain caused by other factors. Early diagnosis allows the clinician to prescribe anti-inflammatory therapy, to identify extra-articular involvement, and to provide counseling on the importance of maintaining proper posture. Perhaps more important, early diagnosis can avoid the costly and unnecessary diagnostic or therapeutic procedures that may be performed if back pain is misdiagnosed as mechanical. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an inflammatory rheumatic disease which is thought to be rarely seen in Kashmiri ethnic population. Its genetic predisposition has been stressed in Caucasians where the HLA-B27 antigen is firmly linked to the disease.
Methods : In the present study, HLA- B27 antigen was determined in 266 patients suffering from low back pain from last six years referred to our Department from osteoarticular disease clinics.
Results : Only 5 of these subjects were found to possess HLA-B27 antigen.
Conclusions : This hospital based study correlates the low frequency of HLA-B27 with the observed scarcity of AS in patients attending tertiary care centre in Sheri Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, for osteoarticular diseases.
Fungal biodiversity studies have gained momentum in the last three decades with the primary objective of documenting the astounding numbers of fungi occurring in nature. Available literature reveals that majority of the fungi still await discovery. With quantum changes in the frontier areas of the life sciences, biodiversity studies have undergone many changes with regard to methodology adopted for identification of fungal species. Biochemical and molecular methods have replaced traditional ones. Understanding community dynamics on fungi is as important as identification and nomenclature of fungal species. Fungal diversity studies have been undertaken in different parts of the globe; yet many regions continue to remain unexplored. This article emphasizes the urgency to make use of the modern tools of science to unravel the fungal biodiversity in such unexplored regions. This would simultaneously provide thrust to the cataloguing of fungal species and documenting the patterns of fungal communities, which would further have added value from the ecological and biotechnological perspective.
Background: Downy mildew disease caused by Sclerospora graminicola is a very destructive disease of pearl millet. The disease is known to occur in Asia and Africa wherever pearl millet is grown as a food and fodder crop.
Challenges: Current status of knowledge about the symptoms of disease, pathogen variability, epidemiology and disease management along with disease resistance has been discussed in detail. Recent approaches of disease management through biological control of the disease have been discussed at length with particular emphasis on the use of BABA, cerebrosides, enzymes, vitamins, botanicals and raw cow’s milk with Gliocladium virens.
Conclusion: Advances made in the field of developing disease resistant varieties using various breeding strategies and molecular approaches have also been discussed in detail.